State Requirements for pilot cars
State requirement for pilots differ from state to state on varying issues, such as how many pilot cars are necessary for specific sizes, where the pilot cars need to be (in front/in back), and many other rules. Most states require that they have flags, signs, and lights on their vehicles to alert other drivers. Most loads that are wider than 14ft require two pilot cars, one in front and one in back. Tall loads require height pole cars in front of the truck with a special pole attached to it's front bumper. This pole is set to the height of the load to test bridges, power lines and anything else that the truck has to pass under on it's route. Usually these are required for anything about 17 feet, but some states require them at lower heights.
Some states require pilot cars to be a certified pilot car by a certification agency, but most do not. However, almost all states do require pilot cars to have a list of necessary equipment such as signs, cones, fire extinguishers, first aid kits, and other equipment that might be required. Some states require special insurance for pilot cars, but not many.
Rarely do loads require police escort, but if the freight is unusually giant or dangerous they can require police escorts
To learn more about pilot car state requirements check your local state's website on pilot cars.